A magnetic field is created in and around the coil by forming a coil and passing through it. This magnetic field is not visible. However, the movement of the core inside the coil and the metals approaching the coil change the energy storage area of the coil. Magnetic sensors are tools that work on this principle.
Magnetic sensors detect magnetic changes occurring in their surroundings. Thus, they generate voltage.
What Do Magnetic Sensors Do?
Magnetic sensors are often used for security reasons. However, the usage areas of magnetic sensors vary. We can list these usage areas as follows;
In cases where there is no electrical connection.
In cases where the object to be detected with the sensor does not see each other.
Security system and safety.
Sensitive distance detection.
How Do Magnetic Sensors Work?
When the coil, which is an inductive element, is in the magnetic field, it generates voltage at the ends. For this voltage to become constant, the coil must be in a constantly changing magnetic field. Continuous motion of the coil or magnet provides this equation. When the motion is not continuous, the coil becomes passive. The inductance value of the coil changes depending on the position of the core inside the coil.
According to Lenz's Law and Faraday's Law, if there is a moving magnetic field in the coil or the coil is moved within this field, tension occurs at the ends. This is the working system of the magnetic sensor.
Magnetic Sensor Types
Several types are available for magnetic sensors. We can describe these types as follows;
1. Coil (Inductive) Magnetic Sensors:
Coil magnetic sensors are inductive devices. As long as the magnetic field is changing, tension is generated at the coil ends. The continuity of the voltage is due to the change of this magnetic field. In the absence of continuous movement, there is no response from the coil. This feature is used in the formation of a coil inductive magnetic sensor.
2. Electronic Circuit Magnetic Sensors (Proximity Sensors):
With current flowing through the coil, a magnetic field is created around the coil. When a metal object enters this magnetic field, the inductance of the coil changes. This change disrupts the balance of the circuit inside the sensor and thus, with the help of the measurement circuit inside the sensor, how close the metal is can be determined.
3.Field Effect Magnetic Sensors:
These field effect sensors are located in a sheet made of conductive material and in the magnetic field. When DC voltage is applied from the A and B ends in this area, a potential difference occurs between the C and D points. The magnetic field and plate proximity is a factor that determines the value of this voltage.
Throughout our article, we told you what magnetic sensors are, the usage areas of magnetic sensors and the types of magnetic sensors. You can find the magnetic sensors you can use in the relevant link.
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